Long Term Sources Of Funds – Types of Share Capital (Part 2 of 3)

Short- term finance is generally borrowings that repayable within ONE year;

Medium- term finance are those repayable within 2 to 5 years and

Long-term finance repayable after more than 5 years

This 2 nd part article seeks to look at Long term sources of fund which include the following:

  • Share capital and
  • Fixed Income Securities


A share is a security which represents a portion of the owner’s capital in a business. Shareholders are the owners of the business. They share in the success or failure of the business. This can be measured by the amount of dividends that they receive and by the price of the share, quoted on the stock market. (In the U.S., shares are referred to as common stock.)

There are several types of share capital:


(1) ORDINARY Share Capital

· Also known as equity shares, this is the risk capital of a company;

· Ordinary shares give holders the rights of ownership in the company, such as the right to share in the profits, the right to vote in general meeting and to elect and dismiss directors;

· Obligations of ownership are also conferred and this may result in the loss of an investor’s money if the company is unsuccessful;

· Ordinary shares usually form the bulk of a company’s capital and have no special rights over other shares and

· In the event of liquidation, ordinary shares rank after all other liabilities of the company.


·  Shares which carry the right to dividend (normally fixed) which ranks for payment before that of ordinary shareholders;

·  Preference shares may be preferred also as regards distribution of assets upon dissolution of the company;

·  Generally carry no voting rights, but voting rights may be made contingent upon failure to pay dividends on preference shares for a certain period of time

·  There are several types of preference shares which are as follows.

(a) Participating preference shares

are entitled to participate in the profits beyond the fixed dividends, by way of an additional fluctuating dividend if the company is successful.

(b) Cumulative preference shares

are preference shares which, apart from having a preferential right to receive a fixed dividend ahead of ordinary shares, also carry the right of any arrears of the preference dividends which may have built up.

 © Non-cumulative preference shares

are preference shares which are not entitled to any arrears in dividends.

(d) Redeemable preference shares

may be redeemed by the company at a stated redemption price on advance notice of a period of time. It is usual to set a redemption price above the par value to compensate the owner for the involuntary loss of his investment.

(e) Convertible preference shares

are preference shares which carry the right to be made convertible, at the option of the holder, into another class of shares, normally into ordinary shares.

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