Technical Summary Of IAS 28 Investments in Associates
This Standard shall be applied in accounting for investments in associates.
However, it does not apply to investments in associates held by:
(a) venture capital organisations, or
(b) mutual funds, unit trusts and similar entities including investment-linked insurance funds that upon initial recognition are designated as at fair value through profit or loss or are classified as held for trading and accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. Such investments shall be measured at fair value in accordance with IAS 39, with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss in the period of the change
Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies.
If an investor holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), 20 per cent or more of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the investor has significant influence, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. Conversely, if the investor holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), less than 20 per cent of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the investor does not have significant influence, unless such influence can be clearly demonstrated. A substantial or majority ownership by another investor does not necessarily preclude an investor from having significant influence.
Under the equity method, the investment in an associate is initially recognised at cost and the carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognise the investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee after the date of acquisition. The investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee is recognised in the investor’s profit or loss. Distributions received from an investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment. Adjustments to the carrying amount may also be necessary for changes in the investor’s proportionate interest in the investee arising from changes in the investee’s equity that have not been recognised in the investee’s profit or loss. Such changes include those arising from the revaluation of property, plant and equipment and from foreign exchange translation differences. The investor’s share of those changes is recognised directly in equity of the investor.
The investor’s financial statements shall be prepared using uniform accounting policies for like transactions and events in similar circumstances.
After application of the equity method, including recognising the associate’s losses, the investor applies the requirements of IAS 39 to determine whether it is necessary to recognise any additional impairment loss with respect to the investor’s net investment in the associate
Separate financial statements
When separate financial statements are prepared, investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are not classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for either:
(a) at cost, or
(b) in accordance with IAS 39.
The same accounting shall be applied for each category of investments. Investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for in accordance with that IFRS.
Investments in jointly controlled entities and associates that are accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 in the consolidated financial statements shall be accounted for in the same way in the investor’s separate financial statements.