Herzberg's Theory Of Motivation

We have looked at Mcgregor’s Theory X & Y and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, next we move on to Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory.
From Herzberg’s research, he advocated a two-step approach to understanding employee motivation and satisfaction.[ His research involved the analysis of job attitudes of 200 accountants and engineers how they felt on the positive or negative sides at work and the reasons for so.

His two step approaches asked management to review:

  • the HYGIENE FACTORS – the need for a business to avoid unpleasantness at work otherwise it cause dissatisfaction amongst the workforce.
  • the MOTIVATOR FACTORS -based on an individual’s need for personal growth. These motivator factors create job satisfaction. If they are effective, then they can motivate an individual to achieve above-average performance and effort.

Difference between Maslow and Herzberg’s theory of motivation:

  • To a certain extent, there is some similarity between Herzberg’s and Maslow’s models. Both suggest that needs have to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. For Herzberg argues that only the higher levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e.g. self-actualisation, esteem needs) act as a motivator. The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed.


The Hygiene Factors includes the following:


· Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration

· Company policy and administration

· Working conditions

· Quality of supervision

· Quality of inter-personal relations

  • Feelings of job security




The Motivator Factors includes the following:


· Status

· Opportunity for advancement

· Gaining recognition

· Responsibility

· Challenging / stimulating work

  • Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job

Implication of Management Applying Hertzberg’s model.

According to Herzberg, management should focus on rearranging work so that motivator factors can take effect. He suggested three ways in which this could be done viz: Job enrichment, Job rotation and Job enlargement


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